A Type is like a thing with pre-defined properties.

Definable properties

definition description
'str' requires type str (values of type str should contain valid UTF-8 characters).
'utf8' requires type str and the value must contain valid UTF-8 characters.
'raw' requires type str or bytes.
'bytes' requires type bytes.
'bool' requires type bool.
'int' requires type int.
'uint' requires a non-negative integer (type int, >= 0).
'pint' requires a positive integer (type int, > 0).
'nint' requires a negative integer (type int, < 0).
'float' requires type float.
'number' requires type float or type int.
'thing' requires a thing.
'X' requires a instance of Type X. The value X should be replace with the Type name.
'[]' requires a list.
'{}' requires a set.
'any' any type is valid.

Each definition can be made optional by adding a question-mark ? to the definition. If a property is made optional, then the value nil is allowed instead of the given type. The property will also be set to nil if no value for the property is given.

For example

// Create a new type `User` with an optional property `name`.
set_type('User', {name: 'str?'});

// Create a instance of type `User` without a name
unknown = User{};

// ..or explicitly set name to `nil`
user_nil = User{name: nil};

// ..a `str` is also ok
iris = User{name: 'Iris'};

// ..but another type than `str` or `nil` is not allowed
assert(iserr(try(User{name: 0})));

// Return the results
[unknown, user_nil, iris];

Return value in JSON format

        "name": null
        "name": null
        "name": "Iris"

When using a list '[]' or set '{}' definition, it is also possible to make the list or set restricted to a certain type. In this case only items of the given definition are allowed as members. For example '[int]' requires the members of a list to be integers and '{User}' is a restricted set which only allows things of type User.

Both the list and/or the members can be made optional. For example, this '[str?]?' is a valid declaration. Since a set does not allow for nil values, it is not possible to make members of a set optional.

This is an example using a restricted list:

// Very simple `Note` type
set_type('Note', {
    text: 'str',
    timestamp: 'uint'

// Book type with `notes` of type `Note`
set_type('Book', {
    title: 'str',
    notes: '[Note]'

// Create a new book
book = Book{
    title: "hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy",
    notes: []

// Add a note to the book
    text: 'the answer is 42',
    timestamp: int(now())

// It *must* be a `Note`, something else is not allowed
assert(iserr(try(book.notes.push({test: 'not a Note'}))));

// Return the book, 2 levels deep to see the note
return(book, 2);

Return value in JSON format

    "notes": [
            "text": "the answer is 42",
            "timestamp": 1573894579
    "title": "hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy"
Function Description
del_type Delete a Type.
mod_type Modify an existing Type definition.
new_type Create a new Type.
has_type Determine if the current scope has a Type.
set_type Set property definitions on a Type and creates the Type if it did not exist.
type_info Return the Type definition.
types_info Return all Type definitions in the current scope.

Mutation format

A mutation format is only required to understand if you manually want to parse events when watching for mutations on things. While most values have a pretty straightforward format when packed in a mutation, a Type instance is a bit more complex to understand.

An example of a Type mutation:

    ".": 10,
    "#": 123,
    "": [
        "hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy"
Key Description
"." The type_id of the Type.
"#" The #ID which is assigned to the Type instance.
"" Array with fields;

In order to correctly parse the mutation you require the types_info of a collection. Note that the types info is included inside an init event. Below is an example with an entry of types_info. This shows type Book which has ID 10 from the mutation example above.

    "created_at": 1581454041,
    "fields": [
        ["title", "str"]
        ["rating", "float"]
    "modified_at": 1581455876,
    "name": "Book",
    "type_id": 10